Insulin hormone, produced in beta cells of pancreas, is required to keep blood sugar under control. In type 2 diabetes, insulin doesn’t work properly (increased insulin resistance) despite normal insulin production, leading to high blood sugars. As disease progresses insulin production comes down even in type 2 diabetes.
Several hormones and genes control insulin production and insulin resistance. These hormones include GLP1, peptide YY, GIP, ghrelin, and anti-incretins. Ghrelin is produced in fundus part of stomach. It acts against insulin and increases insulin resistance. GLP1 and peptide YY are produced in distal ileum (last part of small intestine). These increase insulin production and reduce insulin resistance. Factors like intake of unhealthy foods, lack of physical activity, irregular food habits, stress, lack of sleep and changes in circadian rhythm can alter these hormones and genes, increase insulin resistance leading to type 2 diabetes.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes often go hand in hand. Excess weight leads to increased insulin resistance and inadequate insulin production. If you have excess weight, check your blood sugars, as chances of getting diabetes are significantly high.